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C# Foreach循环本质与枚举器

  对于C#里面的Foreach学过 语言的人都知道怎么用,但是其原理相信很多人和365bet体育在线一样都没有去深究。刚回顾泛型讲到枚举器让365bet体育在线联想到了Foreach的实现,365bet体育在线进行一番探究,有什么不对或者错误的地方大家多多斧正。

1、创建一个控制台应用程序

2、编写测试代码并分析

在Program类中写一个foreach循环

class Program
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        List peopleList = new List() { "张三", "李四", "王五" };
        foreach (string people in peopleList)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(people);
        }
        Console.ReadKey();
    }
}

生成项目将项目编译后在debug目录下用Reflection反编译ForeachTest.exe程序集后查看Program类的IL代码,IL代码如下:

 1 .class private auto ansi beforefieldinit Program
 2     extends [mscorlib]System.Object
 3 {
 4     .method public hidebysig specialname rtspecialname instance void .ctor() cil managed
 5     {
 6         .maxstack 8
 7         L_0000: ldarg.0 
 8         L_0001: call instance void [mscorlib]System.Object::.ctor()
 9         L_0006: ret 
10     }
11  
12     .method private hidebysig static void Main(string[] args) cil managed
13     {
14         .entrypoint
15         .maxstack 2
16         .locals init (
17             [0] class [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1<string> list,
18             [1] string str,
19             [2] class [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1<string> list2,
20             [3] valuetype [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1/Enumerator`0<string> enumerator,
21             [4] bool flag)
22         L_0000: nop 
23         L_0001: newobj instance void [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1<string>::.ctor()
24         L_0006: stloc.2 
25         L_0007: ldloc.2 
26         L_0008: ldstr "\u5f20\u4e09"
27         L_000d: callvirt instance void [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1<string>::Add(!0)
28         L_0012: nop 
29         L_0013: ldloc.2 
30         L_0014: ldstr "\u674e\u56db"
31         L_0019: callvirt instance void [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1<string>::Add(!0)
32         L_001e: nop 
33         L_001f: ldloc.2 
34         L_0020: ldstr "\u738b\u4e94"
35         L_0025: callvirt instance void [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1<string>::Add(!0)
36         L_002a: nop 
37         L_002b: ldloc.2 
38         L_002c: stloc.0 
39         L_002d: nop 
40         L_002e: ldloc.0 
41         L_002f: callvirt instance valuetype [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1/Enumerator`0<!0> [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1<string>::GetEnumerator()
42         L_0034: stloc.3 
43         L_0035: br.s L_0048
44         L_0037: ldloca.s enumerator
45         L_0039: call instance !0 [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1/Enumerator`0<string>::get_Current()
46         L_003e: stloc.1 
47         L_003f: nop 
48         L_0040: ldloc.1 
49         L_0041: call void [mscorlib]System.Console::WriteLine(string)
50         L_0046: nop 
51         L_0047: nop 
52         L_0048: ldloca.s enumerator
53         L_004a: call instance bool [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1/Enumerator`0<string>::MoveNext()
54         L_004f: stloc.s flag
55         L_0051: ldloc.s flag
56         L_0053: brtrue.s L_0037
57         L_0055: leave.s L_0066
58         L_0057: ldloca.s enumerator
59         L_0059: constrained. [mscorlib]System.Collections.Generic.List`1/Enumerator`0<string>
60         L_005f: callvirt instance void [mscorlib]System.IDisposable::Dispose()
61         L_0064: nop 
62         L_0065: endfinally 
63         L_0066: nop 
64         L_0067: call valuetype [mscorlib]System.ConsoleKeyInfo [mscorlib]System.Console::ReadKey()
65         L_006c: pop 
66         L_006d: ret 
67         .try L_0035 to L_0057 finally handler L_0057 to L_0066
68     }
69 }
View Code

在反编译的IL代码中365bet体育在线们看到除了构建List和其他输出,然后多了三个方法:GetEnumerator(),get_Current() ,MoveNext() ,于是通过反编译reflector查看List泛型类,在List里面找到GetEnumerator方法是继承自接口IEnumerable 的方法,List实现的GetEnumerator方法代码

public Enumerator GetEnumerator() => new Enumerator((List) this);

即返回一个Enumerator泛型类,然后传入的参数是List泛型自己 this。接下来查看 Enumerator<T>泛型类

 

[Serializable, StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
public struct Enumerator : IEnumerator<T>, IDisposable, IEnumerator
{
    private List<T> list;
    private int index;
    private int version;
    private T current;
    internal Enumerator(List<T> list)
    {
        this.list = list;
        this.index = 0;
        this.version = list._version;
        this.current = default(T);
    }
 
    public void Dispose()
    {
    }
 
    public bool MoveNext()
    {
        List<T> list = this.list;
        if ((this.version == list._version) && (this.index < list._size))
        {
            this.current = list._items[this.index];
            this.index++;
            return true;
        }
        return this.MoveNextRare();
    }
 
    private bool MoveNextRare()
    {
        if (this.version != this.list._version)
        {
            ThrowHelper.ThrowInvalidOperationException(ExceptionResource.InvalidOperation_EnumFailedVersion);
        }
        this.index = this.list._size + 1;
        this.current = default(T);
        return false;
    }
 
    public T Current =>
        this.current;
    object IEnumerator.Current
    {
        get
        {
            if ((this.index == 0) || (this.index == (this.list._size + 1)))
            {
                ThrowHelper.ThrowInvalidOperationException(ExceptionResource.InvalidOperation_EnumOpCantHappen);
            }
            return this.Current;
        }
    }
    void IEnumerator.Reset()
    {
        if (this.version != this.list._version)
        {
            ThrowHelper.ThrowInvalidOperationException(ExceptionResource.InvalidOperation_EnumFailedVersion);
        }
        this.index = 0;
        this.current = default(T);
    }
}

365bet体育在线们看到这个Enumerator<T>泛型类实现了接口IEnumerator的方法,也就是365bet体育在线们测试的ForeachTest程序集反编译后IL代码中出现的get_Current() ,MoveNext() 方法。365bet体育在线foreach实际上是编译器编译后先调用GetEnumerator方法返回Enumerator的实例,这个实例即是一个枚举器实例。通过MoveNext方法移动下标来查找下一个list元素,get_Current方法获取当前查找到的元素,Reset方法是重置list。

3、总结

  因此要使用Foreach遍历的对象是继承了IEnumerable接口然后实现GetEnumerator方法。返回的实体对象需要继承IEnumerator接口并实现相应的方法遍历对象。因此Foreach的另365体育投注写法如下

posted @ 2018-10-22 11:51  XSpringSun  阅读(565)  评论(0编辑  收藏